Cancer, a disease is still the second most common cause of death in the U.S. According to the report of American Cancer Society, more than 1,500 people die every day because of cancer. Current treatments for various cancers therapies have improved patients’ survival rate but they suffer from several limitations. For example, the non-specific distribution of drugs limits the therapeutic dose within cancer cells and thereby causing several adverse side effects including hair loss, weakness, and organ dysfunction, leading to a low quality of life for cancer patients.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been of significant interest over the last decade as they offer great benefits for drug delivery to overcome limitations in conventional chemotherapy. They can not only be formed in a range of sizes (1-1000 nm) but In addition, they can be tailored to simultaneously carry both drugs and imaging probes and designed to specifically target molecules of diseased tissues. Nanoparticles for anti-cancer drug delivery reached the first clinical trial in the mid-1980s, and the first nanoparticles (e.g. liposomal with encapsulated doxorubicin) entered the pharmaceutical market in 1995.