Phase Behaviour, Formation and Characterization of Palm-Based Esters Nanoemulsion Formulation containing Ibuprofen
The term ‘nanoemulsions’ has been widely used to describe the complex systems consisting of oil phase, surfactant and water, which are optically isotropic and kinetically stable colloidal solution with droplet size in the range of 20-200 nm. Currently, nanoemulsions are becoming the subject of many studies due to their wide range of particle sizes in nanoscale, and this has contributed to more branches of potential uses and applications. The nanoemulsion particles have given them the characteristic property of being easily absorbed by the skin which is sought after in the pharmaceutical industry.
Many initial pharmaceutical studies in the formation of nanoemulsions dealt with ternary phase diagrams studies. The ternary phase diagrams of several water–surfactant–oil mixtures have exhibited a variety of complex phases. In the single phase of isotropic region, the full determination of the phase boundaries requires many replicates experimental measurements due to the continuity among pure micellar solutions, swollen micelles, microemulsions and nanoemulsions. In practice, nanoemulsion systems containing oil phase, surfactant and water are optically clear to the eye and have been identified as the ‘isotropic liquid region’, L1.