Oral Manifestations of Pemphigus Vulgaris: Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis and Management
Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease characterized by the formation of intraepithelial blisters. It results from an autoimmune process in which antibodies are produced against desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3, normal components of the cell membrane of keratinocytes. The first manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris appear in the oral mucosa in the majority of patients, followed at a later date by cutaneous lesions. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and laboratory analyses, and it is usually treated by the combined administration of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Detection of the oral lesions can result in an earlier diagnosis. We review the oral manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris as well as the differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of oral lesions in this uncommon disease.