Deleting Zeros From National Currency Investigation And Analysis of Removing Zeroes From Iran’s National Currency

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Not only money is the means of having economic exchanges, it also leaves influences on the national identity of people and the national authority of governments and therefore it can be used as a tool to strengthen national and political identity of different nations. In other words, the value of national currency can affect the perspectives of people towards their economic situation as well as the national identity of their country. If people always expect the devaluation of their currency, this will be a cause of concern for governmental authorities. 

journal of economics and management sciences

Hence, it falls upon the governments to boost people’s confidence in their national currency by maintaining its value and thus preventing the phenomenon of “currency replacement”, i.e. taking refuge in foreign currencies. This article first attempt to investigate government’s’ aim behind deleting zeros from national currencies and then presents the conditions and requirements for this undertaking. Then, it will review the experiences of other countries and the history of removing zeroes from national currencies. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of removing zeros from national currency will be explored.

The Effect of Thermacare Heat Wraps on Balance and Mobility in Seniors with Impaired Gait – A Cross Over Study

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physiotherapy journals pdfFalls are one of the most prevalent causes of injury and death in the elderly population. One in every three adults ages 65 and older falls each year. In 2010, 2.4 million non-fatal fall injuries in older adults were treated in emergency rooms and over 22,000 older adults died from unintentional fall injuries. The length of hospital stay is about twice that of a younger person after a fall. Falls reduce the quality of life by reducing confidence and independence even if people don’t fall due to apprehension alone. The elderly can present with greater postural sway, which is strongly associated with a greater risk of falling.

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X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis on Discrete Element Modeling of Nano Powder Metallurgy Processes in Optimal Container Design

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It was the invention of fire, which has given a new shape in the development of humankind. Use of fire to modify metallic structure assisted to have desired shape of raw metal. The necessity of metallic weapon secured the prehistoric life of ancient human. Relic evidence highlighted the fact that, the use of metalwork has an illustrious history, which started with Copper (9000 BC) then different other metals and alloys came into use.

powder metallurgy journal

With the innovative mind of human being, the use of metal was not limited only in weapon making; different utensils and shelter equipment also got the metallic touch. This feat made them a regional superpower for years to come. Thus, at step, the methodology of metallurgy underwent multiple refinements. Powder Metallurgy (PM) is one such refinement which is concerned with production of metals in their powder form and molding them into various shapes. This form of metallurgy was incorporated into the echelon of metallurgical techniques at around 3000 BC and has seen numerous advancements since then.

Local Natural Medicine Wisdom and Medical Cosmetology

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journal cosmetology dermatologyBeautiful has been the topic of interest for a long time. Everyone like a beauty appearance and the cosmetology is the specific science for promotion of beauty. The medical cosmetology is widely practice at present. Many new advance cosmetic materials and techniques are available. Most of them are artificial and synthesized. Based on the concept of green technology and think earth at present, returning to the nature is the new concept. Of several fields of medicine in the present day, natural medicine is the specific medicine with the closest relationship to nature. It is interesting that the use of natural medicine in medical cosmetology should be promoted. In fact, there are several local wisdoms regarding the beauty promotion and this should be further studied and researched in medical cosmetology. Several herbal medicine systems have been reintroduced for a few years. As the local wisdom pass a long period of time, the safety and efficacy might be expected.

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The Stock Market Crash of the Great Recession: Who’s To Blame?

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During 2008, the first full year of the “Great Recession”, the US stock market as measured by the S&P 500 Index went into free-fall, dropping almost 40%. The plunge is generally blamed on the American housing crisis. “Housing” accounts for approximately 25% of the US GDP, reflecting the depth and breadth of the industry for e.g., real estate developers, builders, and architects; brokers, bankers, and lawyers; electricians, plumbers, and roofers; painters and lawn maintenance professionals; and appliance and furniture manufacturers.

stock and forex trading impact factor

Since the dark days of 2008-2010, the S&P has gradually (albeit erratically) recovered and now (early 2012) is just about where it was when the recession began more than four years ago. The same is true of the Dow Jones Industrial Average as well most other indices. What has happened to the housing market in the meantime? The leading measure of American residential housing market is the S&P/Case-Shiller Home Price Index. Since dropping some 30% from mid-2007 to early 2009, the 20-city home price index has not regained any ground, remaining locked at negative 30%.

Iatrogenic Risk in the Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among Combat Veterans: A Case Illustration and Commentary

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The assessment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) among combat veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars is a major challenge. Recently, clinicians within the United States Veterans Administration Health System have expressed concern for potential iatrogenic disability related to outreach efforts to identify veterans with possible mTBI.

physical medicine and rehabilitation impact factor

We describe a veteran with a history of mTBI sustained during combat who underwent repeated examination for cognitive symptoms reportedly due to mTBI, and with variable descriptions of severe peri-trauma characteristics attributed to blast exposure over multiple assessments. Repeat neuropsychological (NP) testing indicated, in general, minimal cognitive impairment and probable invalid performance on testing (e.g., poor effort). The consensus conclusion of several NP examinations attributed his cognitive complaints to psychiatric disturbance, including posttraumatic stress disorder, rather than brain dysfunction. Despite this, the veteran’s treating medical practitioners continued to infer mTBI as a source for his cognitive complaints and self-reported disability.

Heat Shock Proteins: Heating up skin cancer biology

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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones with significant role in various physiological processes and pathological conditions including cancer. Certain cytotoxic insults or heat stress causes activation of the HSPs, which prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis and maintenance of cellular function. However, activation of HSPs also has detrimental effects particularly if the cells evading apoptosis possess oncogenic mutations.

dermatitis journal articles

Over that last few decades there has been a steady rise in incidence of skin cancer globally and recent scientific and epidemiological evidence hypothesize that heat stress could also be a risk factor of skin carcinogenesis. More recently, HSP based vaccines have shown promise in treatment of early stage melanoma. Therefore, the aim of this article is to summarize the main concepts related to the expression and function of HSPs, from analysis of HSPs role in skin cancer and present final considerations related to HSP targeted therapy in this area.