Osteoporosis is considered as the most common metabolic bone disorder and characterized by low bone mass and skeletal fragility. Osteoporosis engages approximately about 200 millions of individuals, world widely. For instance, about 10 millions of Americans are affected and another 34 million are at risk of osteopenia . Osteoporosis has been known as a silent disease. The affected patients do not often understand about the nature of their disease until it significantly develops so that the patients are often presented with osteoporosis related fractures. Postmenopausal women are the most commonly affected population in the world and the fracture rates in postmenopausal Asian, American and African women have been reported to be 41, 54 and 91%, respectively.
During the postmenopausal period, the risk of fractures increases due to the accelerated bone loss because estrogen declines with age. Moreover, men are also affected by osteoporosis with the incidence of 20%. Annually, $19 billion are accounted for osteoporotic fractures in health care expenditures which expected to rise to $25.3 billion in the future 10 years. Each year, nearly 300,000 hip fractures, 547,000 vertebral fractures and almost 1,054,000 other fractures occur due to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis imposes more than 432,000 hospital admissions, 2.5 million medical office visits, and 180,000 nursing home admissions to the healthcare systems, annually. Despite of several attempts, osteoporosis is still a considerable challenge for the governments.
In order to perform new dental implant, we carried out investigations on α-alumina and calcium phosphate based composites. α-Alumina nano-powder were synthesized using reverse micelle method while calcium phosphate nano-powders with different molar ratio starting from 1.8 to 1.1 were synthesized by precipitation method, using calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O) and ammonium hydrogen orthophosphate (NH4H2PO4) as precursor materials as source for calcium (Ca²+) and phosphate ((PO4)3-) ions respectively. Samples of respectively 5, 10 and 20% weight of Calcium phosphate powder were mixed with alumina, consolidated and sintered at 1400°C for 4 hours. The synthesized composites, in form of pellets were characterized for bulk density, apparent porosity, hardness and flexural strength properties.
Bioceramic materials particularly calcium phosphate based materials are used mainly as bone substitute or scaffolds due to their good biocompatibility, and their compositional similarity with the inorganic components of human bone. Many of these bioceramic materials also possess excellent chemical resistance, compressive strength and wear resistance. However, there are some bioceramic materials which are inert in their bioactive response.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease.in this condition the cells are built on the surface of the skin. The extra skin cells form silvery scales and itchy which are often painful. The treatment for psoriasis can be carried out in a better way if we can stop the skin cells from growing so quickly. The top open access journals are peer reviewed scholarly journals of Journal of Autacoids & Hormones.
The top open access journals are freely available on the public internet domain, allowing any end users to read, download, copy, distribute, prink, search or link to the full texts of the articles. These provide high quality, meticulously reviewed and rapid publication, to cater the insistent need of scientific community. These journals are indexed with all their citations noted. The top open access journals are indexed in MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCOPUS, COPERNICUS, CAS, EBSCO and ISI.Read More…..
Research into the utilization of FTIR based spectroscopic methods has been going on for close to about 25 years with the field expanding from the initial days of cancer diagnosis to now where it includes various diseases occurring due to pathogens, genetic and environmental factors as well as lifestyle and age related factors. In parallel there have been developments in terms of both instrumentation sophistication and computational methods, to make it more clinically appealing while increasing the sensitivity and specificity of the technique. As the field has diversified over the years, a few reports are highlighted that establish the growing acceptance of FTIR spectroscopy as a reliable technique in both basic and applied research in the field of biomedicine.
The field of IR based diagnosis emerged with the validations that carcinogenic and normal tissues from various organs could be differentiated based on their absorbance in the IR region (mostly mid-IR) that was related to the alteration in the chemical composition. The concept of unique fingerprinting was subsequently well established with studies from many different laboratories reporting that each cell or tissue type ranging from microbial cell to complex human tissues have characteristic absorbance spectrum. Making the system of diagnosis reagent free has been the ultimate challenge in using the technique in routine clinical set ups.
Cable shovels are used in surface mining operations to achieve economic bulk production capacities. The service life of the rawlers and their shoes define shovel reliability, maintainability, availability and efficiency. The crawler track-terrain interaction generates high time-fluctuating contact forces that result in stress buildup, crack and fatigue failure of wler shoes. In addition, the link pins that connect two crawler shoes can exert large fluctuating pin loads on shoe lugding to shoe breakage. This paper addresses fundamental research into contact forces acting on crawler shoes, joint forces generated in the link pin and total deformation of the formation during shovel propel.
Cable shovels are widely used in surface mining operations. The lower works of this shovel comprise propel and crawler systems, which support the upper body and attachment as shown in Figure 1.The crawler tracks are made up of crawler shoes that are connected together by link pins to form a continuous chain. The multi-body dynamics study on the interaction between the shovel crawler track and the terrain for large shovels in surface mining operations is not widely available in the open literature. This study is important to determine crawler shoe kinematics, contact forces between crawler tracks and ground and reaction forces at the link pin joint between adjacent crawler shoes