Electronic government (e-government) has been adopted globally by both developed and developing countries. Many studies revealed that the e-government not only improves the efficiency of public administration but also the practice of good governance, such as increasing transparency, deducing administrative corruption, improving service delivery, improving civil service performance, citizens empowerment and improving government finance
Electronic government (e-government) has been adopted globally by both developed and developing countries. Many studies revealed that the e-government not only improves the efficiency of public administration but also the practice of good governance, such as increasing transparency, deducing administrative corruption, improving service delivery, improving civil service performance, citizens empowerment and improving government finance (Almunawar, Low, Habibur-Rahman, Mohidin; Bhatnagar). Citizens in countries with advance e-government systems such as South Korea, Australia and Singapore (the top three countries in UN e-government ranking 2014) enjoy many benefits as many government services can be accessed through the Web or through their smart phones.Read More…..
Postural drainage is also known as bronchial drainage. It is a passive technique in which a patient is placed in different positions that allow gravity to assist with the drainage of secretions from the different broncho-pulmonary segments of the lungs. The objective of this paper is to develop a smart mannequin that can be used to train physical therapists and respiratory therapists to master the postural drainage and percussion techniques. Different types of sensors are placed on the mannequin to guide and ease the training process. The proposed smart mannequin has achieved an acceptable satisfaction rate.
Postural drainage and percussion are chest physical therapy techniques which are used by a licensed Physical Therapist (PT) to loosen and dislodge the sticky secretions accumulated in the lungs as a result of certain chest diseases which will then be expelled out of the body by coughing.
This work aims to decorate carbon nanotubes with oxygenated functional groups for effective removal of Cadmium ions from aqueous media. For that purpose Carbon nanotubes (CNT) was oxidized by nitric acid to give MCNT- HNO3. The CNT and MCNT- HNO3 were characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, Boehm titration, nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis, point of zero charge and surface pH. The adsorption experiments of Cd(II) onto sorbents were studied using the batch technique and factors affecting the adsorption capacities of Cd(II) were investigated and discussed. The isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations.
The equilibrium data fitted well Langmuir isotherm for both CNT and MCNT- HNO3. The kinetic results were analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and the Boyd equations. The rate constants, equilibrium capacities and related correlation coefficients (R2) for each kinetic model were calculated and discussed. Highest values of R2 were obtained on applying the pseudo second-order with both carbons. Although intraparticle diffusion plays impotent role in rate-controlling step in the adsorption process of Cd(II) onto the investigated sorbents, film diffusion is also controlling this process. The thermodynamic parameters including ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° for the adsorption processes of Cd(II) on the carbons were calculated, and the negative value of ΔG° indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption. The desorption studies revealed that the regeneration of MCNT- HNO3 can be easily achieved.
Abstract: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of hexagonal pigmented cells located in the outmost part of the neurosensory retina. RPE cells are vital for the health of retina. Dysfunction of RPE resulted from consistent exposures to oxidative stress has been reportedly to cause retinal degenerations, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). RPE cells exert different types autophagy to maintain retina hemostasis. This review summarizes molecular and cellular autophagic mechanisms that are revealed in RPE to respond to stress. The evidence in support of autophagy dysfunction or aging that result in diseases is also discussed.
Description: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of hexagonal pigmented cells located in the outmost part of the neurosensory retina. Several activities have been identified of these cells including the supplement of nutrients and oxygen to retina, the sustainment of visual cycle through metabolizing vitamin A.
The absorbing of scattered light to reduce photo-oxidation via melanosomes, the performance of receptor-mediated phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment (POS) fragments for assuring viability and functionality of photoreceptors, the secretion of signaling modulators for communicating with adjacent cells, transportation of ions, and supporting of immune privilege. These functions make RPE an important role in visual processing system. Dysfunction of RPE resulted from consistent exposures to oxidative stress has been reportedly to cause retinal degenerations, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Insurance industry plays crucial part in economic and social development of India through its role as intermediary between investors and industry. Two insurance categories are identified based on the type of risk underwritten: life and general (non-life). The insurance companies provide a source of long-term funds to the government and various industries in the financial markets. The industry has ₹ 20972.75 billion assets under management which represents 36.52% of GDP and 52 companies competed aggressively at the end of 2014. Over the last decade Indian insurance industry has experienced exceptional changes and confronted more difficulties. As an aftermath of deregulation and globalization foreign companies entered in Indian market place.
The competitive pressures force many insurance companies to change corporate strategies in order to reduce operating costs while keeping up or improving the quality of their services. Investment activity is a crucial issue of the insurance sector because the ultimate performance of the sector relies upon the return of its investment. Investment returns made by insurance companies constitute a major portion in operating performance and enhance their standing in competitive market place. Investment gains are reflecting financial wellbeing of insurance companies and facilitate designing of pricing and dividend policies. Strong investment returns facilitate insurance companies to offset their underwriting losses and allow them to report overall profitability.
As the marketplace continues to evolve at a rapid pace, it is imperative to find a tool to help managers in identifying the companies that are best positioned to thrive in a changing environment. Along these lines, assessing performance in the insurance industry remains an important objective and has always been the subject of considerable interest. This research proposed a DEA model which estimate investment performance of Indian private life insurance industry. The paper successfully provides a comprehensive evaluation for insurance companies. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives a brief review of investment performance. Section 3 provides the models and methodology utilized in this paper. Section 4 gives the DEA results and further discussion. Finally, our conclusions are presented in Section 5.
Worldwide, the prevalence of overweight people continues to rise. Especially, the increase in overweight children is of great concern. In 2000, 10% of all children aged 5-17 were overweight, a total of 155 million. Early childhood (defined as between 0 and 5 years of age) has been identified as one of the most critical periods for the development of obesity in later years. It is estimated that 22 million children below 5 years of age are currently overweight, and children from ethnic minority groups have a higher risk of obesity compared to their Caucasian peers.
As in adults, childhood obesity results in high levels of serum triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and low levels of high-density lipoproteins, which may influence propensity to atherogenesis? Pathological studies have reported advanced athlerosclerotic lesions even in children and there is increasing evidence that children’s dyslipidaemia, obesity, hypertension and physical fitness track into adulthood.
Furthermore, an overweight child has a high risk of becoming an overweight adult Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood, and the relative risk of an obese 10-13 year old becoming an obese adult is six to seven times greater than that of his/her non-obese peers. The chances of obesity persisting increase with obesity severity. The evidence of tracking obesity from childhood into adulthood adds to the importance of preventing the development of obesity early on in childhood. This has led to an increased recognition of the importance of childhood as a focus for obesity prevention programs.
While the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in the developing world, the levels of physical activity have probably declined. While there are recommendations and a plethora of data on the physical activity levels for individuals over 3 years old, little is known about the current physical activity levels of children under 3 years of age. Most existing data have been obtained from older children/adolescents, or from studies before the obesity epidemic. Given, that fact these younger ages are a critical period for the development of obesity, and as previously mentioned obesity levels in children under 3 have increased dramatically, and the level of tracking of obesity and physical activity from childhood to adulthood. . It is therefore imperative, that research becomes focused on this younger age group.
A nosocomial infection, also called “Hospital-Acquired Infection (HAI)” can be defined as: an infection occurring in a patient in a hospital or other health care facility in whom the infection was not present or incubating at the time of admission. Nosocomial infections occur worldwide and affect both developed and resourcepoor countries. Infections acquired in health care settings are among the major causes of death and increased morbidity among hospitalized patients. They are a significant burden both for the patient and for public health. Many patients receive antimicrobial drugs. Through selection and exchange of genetic resistance elements, antibiotics promote the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria; microorganisms in the normal human flora sensitive to the given drug are suppressed, while resistant strains persist and may become endemic in the hospital. The widespread use of antimicrobials for therapy or prophylaxis (including topical) is the major determinant of resistance. Antimicrobial agents are, in some cases, becoming less effective because of resistance. As an antimicrobial agent becomes widely used, bacteria resistant to this drug eventually emerge and may spread in the health care setting. Many strains of pneumococci, staphylococci, enterococci, and tuberculosis are currently resistant to most or all antimicrobials which were once effective.
Due to high resistance of the bacteria, new alternatives have been developed using Ag supported in TiO2-SiO2 prepared by the sol-gel method as precursor. It has been proven that the new compounds are highly toxic to microorganisms in about 16 major bacterial species. Especially SiO2-TiO2 doped with silver forms nanoparticle (nanoAghospital) have recently received considerable attention, due to their antimicrobial capabilities. These nanoAg-hospital reduce the growth of microorganisms (over 99%), has antifungal effects and good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and many others.