rehabilitation journal articles
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant problem in both the pediatric and adult populations. Approximately 500,000-700,000 pediatric TBI incidents and 2.5 million adults are suffered from TBI every year. TBI is ranged from mild to severe and its management depends of the severity of the injury.
Hemiplegic stroke is a critical medical condition that may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the body. Treatment includes medication and physical exercise essential for the patients to regain normality in their lives. Rehabilitation plays an important role in Stroke patients, where both the patient and their family members are thoroughly trained for the follow –up measures to enable the affected patient’s mobility. Although there are several challenges in exactly predicting the prognosis and the final outcome of the treatment, on the basis of evaluations conducted at the time of admission to rehabilitation, it is possible to estimate the outcome.
Acupressure as a Model for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatment Following Acquired Brain Injury: Translating Lessons from the Laboratory
Acquired brain injury (e.g., stroke and traumatic brain injury or TBI) and associated sequelae are highly prevalent in the United States (U.S.), impacting both civilians and military populations. Because conventional treatments can be limited and functional recovery incomplete, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is often sought out.
The popularity of CAM exists despite inconclusive research findings for CAM treatments for injuryassociated sequelae. Apparent methodological limitations in CAM studies include issues related to experimental design, control groups, sample size, blinding and disparities in outcome measures. Overcoming these limitations poses challenges, but not insurmountable ones.
Surgical Intervention for Spasticity of Upper and Lower Limbs in an Interdisciplinary Neuro-Orthopedic Spasticity Clinic
Spasticity refers to an abnormal, velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone resulting from interruption of the neural circuitry regulating the muscle and is a common complication of cerebral palsy, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis and stroke. Its incidence after a stroke is 17% to 38%. Moreover, the severity of spasticity increases over time and induces significant pain, contractures, joint subluxations or dislocations, peripheral neuropathy and pressure ulcers.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or allodynia occurs in approximately 50% of patients because of the extended immobilization period. Although immobilization is considered to be a cause of chronic pain, when pain is experienced, it is difficult to input afferent information from the periphery to the brain by forcibly performing movements. During the immobilization period, the way the brain comprehends the somatology is important for preventing chronic pain. Many previous studies have shown that brain activity while performing actual movements and brain activity while imagining the movements are equivalent; presentation of an image or illusion of the movement may allow patients to maintain brain activities related to somatotopy, thereby preventing chronic pain.
Therefore, based on this, rehabilitation using the illusion or an image of the movements has attracted much attention. For example, vibratory stimulation of the tendons causes firing of muscular spindles, and the stimulated spindles from the afferent input are perceived to be extended, resulting in an illusion of movement, similar to articular movements. A previous study has reported that when vibratory stimuli were applied during immobilization caused by arthrodesis in the hands and fingers, a proper activity was performed in the motor-related areas of the brain, including the primary motor area, after removal of the fixture, whereas activity in these areas was reduced in the group without vibratory stimuli.