sports medicine journal
The time trial (TT) or downhill (DH) position (Figure 1) in cycling, which is different from general riding form, is used in time trial road races or triathlons to decrease air resistance and achieve faster speeds. In the TT or DH position, the rider’s neck is extended and his or her body is strained while racing, and some athletes develop neck pain or headache. Most cases of neck pain may be caused by fatigue due to sustained muscular stress, but there may be some risk of myelopathy in some cases.
Triathlons involve different distances, and there are also many different styles of bicycle; likewise, different athletes have different racing experiences and different body conditions. However, the TT position or DH position is common and many cyclists can use DH bars for faster speed.
Left Ventricular Function Improve after Bench Press: A Speckle Tracking and 3D Echocardiography Study
Speckle tracking echo cardiography is introducing new hypotheses about the patho physiology of cardiovascular elite athlete. The Speckle Tracking allows us to evaluate the strain (S), the strain rate (SR), tissue velocities and displacement; being it less influenced by the angle of study, or by the load nor sex, nor they age or systolic blood pressure values. Ventricular remodeling that athlete produce is very variable, depending on the type of sport, age, gender, time or type of training, race or genetics. We consider that there are two types of remodeled, concentric and eccentric.
Associations between Physical Activity and Submaximal Cardiorespiratory and Pulmonary Responses in Men
Habitual physical activity (PA) is associated with higher cardio respiratory fitness values, but additional information is needed on the contributions of specific types and amounts of PA. Therefore the main aim of this study was to analyze the heart and lung function of a large cohort of men and compare these outcomes with various modes and volumes of PA. We used data from 30,594 men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who were categorized into sedentary, swimmer, walker, and runner groups using self-report PA data collected during 1970-2005.
Additional PA categories using MET-minutes/week were used to group men into 5 distinct levels of activity (0 MET-min, 1-499 MET-min, 500-999 MET-min, 1000-1499 MET-min, and ? 1500 MET-min). Each participant also completed a maximal treadmill exercise test to quantify their fitness level. Cross-sectional analyses included general linear modeling and multiple comparisons adjusted for age, smoking status, and histories of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and hypertension. Results: A dose-response linear effect was found for heart function variables across PA MET-min categories.
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a novel field test of critical running speed (CS). Ten trained male distance runners completed a familiarisation trial plus three separate experimental trials on a standard 400 m athletics track. Each trial consisted of three distances (1200, 2400 and 3600 metres) that were selected to produce finishing times in the region of 3, 7 and 12 minutes respectively. Participants were instructed to cover the set distance in the fastest time possible. Participants rested for 30 minutes between efforts. Data were modelled using the linear distance-time model, described by the equation: d = (CS x t) + ARC, where: d = distance run (m), t = running time (s), and ARC = anaerobic running capacity (m).
The use of evidence to guide clinicians’ practice, known as Evidence Based Practice or EBP, has been an increasing area of interest worldwide. Its concepts started in medicine, the initial term was Evidence Based Medicine or EBM and eventually, the concepts were adopted and used by other health professions wanting to provide the best management to achieve optimum outcomes for patients and clients, therefore the term EBP was coined.
Sports medicine and rehabilitation is one area where the application of EBP is most valuable. It covers the prevention, evaluation, management and rehabilitation of injuries brought about by participation in athletic and sports activities. Given this broad area of practice, it is very important that the best evidence is used to make informed decisions regarding client management.
The Levels of C – reactive protein, Malondialdehyde and Absolute Lymphocyte Counts in Pre and Post-Acute Exercise
This study was designed to determine the level of oxidative stress using the level of circulating C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde and absolute lymphocyte counts in pre and post-acute exercise as studies have shown that acute exercise enhances the immunological responses of stressed individuals. Twenty five (25) healthy young male undergraduate students with an average age of 24.3 ± 3 years and body mass index of 22.7 ± 1.8 (kg/m2) participated fully in the study.
The levels of malondialdehyde and C-reactive protein were significantly higher at one hour, four hours and twenty-four hour post exercise when compared with the pre-exercise stage whereas the absolute lymphocyte count and absolute neutrophils count were significantly higher at one hour and four hours post exercise when compared with the pre-exercise stage. Absolute lymphocyte count, absolute neutrophils count, Creactive protein and malondialdehyde concentrations are increased in acute exercise which is an indication of an acute phase responses during stressful events.
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITB) is a common running injury. The ITB runs along the lateral or outside aspect of the thigh and is an important structure that stabilizes the outside of the knee as it flexes and extend. The pathway of ITB is caused by excessive friction and impingement on the lateral femoral epicondyle at approximately 20-30° of knee flexion.
Factors such as leg length differences and increased prominence of the lateral epicondyles have also been noted as possible non-modifiable factors associated with ITB, and factors such as reduced flexibility, excessive pronation, high weekly mileage; time spent walking or running on a track; interval training and muscle weakness of the hip abductor muscles may also be associated with ITB.
Typically a diagnosis is based on the case history and physical examination is local tenderness of the lateral knee inferior to the epicondyle and superior to the joint line. The Ober test for distensibility of the iliotibial band is also frequently a measurement of interest, though in some cases magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography might be indicated to rule out another disorder in the region.